Advantages and Disadvantages
Knowing the disadvantages of biomass is just as important as knowing the advantages of biomass so I'll cover them both here.
As with any heating system, biomass has its pros and cons, so in this section I'll explain these further and although we're a UK based site these pros and cons will apply to you wherever you're living.
Before I get to the advantages and disadvantages of biomass it's worth pointing out a few biomass facts and figures. Just to give you a little background information.
Interesting Biomass Facts:
- 12 cubic metres of wood chips can produce similar levels of heat
to 1000 litres of heating oil.
- Around six million tonnes of wood is wasted by being sent to landfill
in the UK each year. That's wood that's perfectly good and could be used in biomass boilers to heat your home and mine.
- Every year our forestry industry wastes enough biomass to heat 1,500,000 homes.
- The payback period of biomass varies depending on the
efficiency of your biomass boiler (which is improving all the time) and how efficient your lifestyle
and house is (i.e. how much heat does your family use and how well
insulated and draft proofed your house is). Typically you could expect a
payback period of between 5-9 years, but this will vary for the
previously stated reasons.
- The typical life expectancy of a domestic biomass boiler is around 18 years.
Advantages of biomass:
- Biomass is a sustainable fuel source if managed correctly, i.e. trees need to be planted to replace those used.
- It's virtually carbon neutral. I say virtually as
there is a carbon cost involved in cutting down the trees, transporting
the wood and processing the wood into logs, chips or pellets.
obviously if you have sustainable woodland beside your property and
you use a log boiler, you will be closer to achieving carbon neutrality
than someone who buys biomass fuel pellets and has them delivered.
However the pellet stove will be more efficient, producing less ash and
will be less labour intensive on your part to look after.
- If biomass boilers are well maintained and run they will produce
very little smoke. (If not well maintained this will become one of the
disadvantages of biomass, as the less efficiently they burn the longer
your payback period will become).
- Biomass is a good way of using up waste wood. If you're using a log or chip based system you can easily use waste wood, with a
little preparation. Wood chippers are widely available but you'll
need to make sure it's capable of producing consistent biomass grade fuel chips to suit your boiler (check with your boiler manufacturer for their requirements).
- Biomass fuels are less susceptible to price increases than traditional fuels such as oil and gas.
- If you replace a coal or electric heating system with biomass you can reduce your carbon dioxide output by around 9.5 tonnes per annum.
Disadvantages of biomass:
- The boilers need more space as they're normally larger than
gas or oil boilers. They also require a lot of space to store the
fuel, such as a hopper or wood store.
- Only a small number of biomass systems can be used in a smokeless zone.
If you life in such an area you will need to do some careful research
into the various manufacturers to make sure their system is suitable.
Plus you'll have to use good quality fuel with very low levels of
contaminants (bark, grit etc.)
- Biomass cost - fuel costs can be similar to gas but
are much cheaper than solid fuel or electric heating. This makes biomass
an ideal replacement for solid fuel or electric heating systems.
- Initial costs are high compared with traditional gas or oil installations.
- Fuel needs to be kept dry if it's to burn cleanly and efficiently.
- It's more labour intensive than traditional gas or
oil installations as you need to keep the hopper full/load logs, plus
regular cleaning and maintenance will be required. However modern biomass boilers are addressing this and can now clean themselves.
- You'll need a reliable supply of fuel as all the various types of biomass fuel
are not always readily available close to your home. The further they
have to be transported the greater the carbon footprint and the greater
the cost. So check out availability before buying your boiler.
Biomass boilers are not a solution for everyone. The UK couldn't physically produce enough timber to fuel them if we all installed
A green alternative to biomass is heat pumps which can be run in conjunction with solar thermal panels and/or photovoltaic panels
Now that you are aware of the advantages and disadvantages of
biomass, you will be in a better position to decide if biomass is the
best option for you.
Always check before deciding on a biomass boiler
that there is a reliable supply of your chosen fuel type as we don't all
have access to sustainable woodland next to our house.
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